In 2020, 那些依赖中国商品的企业从惨痛的教训中认识到了缺乏灵活采购的危险. “In the first quarter of 2020, the COVID-19 crisis caused mass production shutdowns and supply chain disruptions due to port closures in China,” explains Kagure Wamunyu, 尼日利亚科技初创公司的首席战略官 Kobo360它集合了端到端的运输作业. “这在包括非洲在内的全球所有经济部门都产生了连锁反应.”
非洲从两个不同的角度经历了中国生产放缓的影响. In Q1 2020, 中国对非洲原材料和大宗商品的需求大幅下降, while the continent’s access to industrial components and manufactured goods from the region were also restricted.
然而，冠状病毒的影响对非洲来说是一把双刃剑. “当前的危机为非洲国家创造了构建价值链的机会 as well as take advantage of the breakdown in supply chains from China and Europe,” says Ms Wamunyu.
鉴于非洲大陆自由贸易区(AfCFTA)协定于2021年1月实施, which will form a US$3.4 trillion economic bloc, 关键制造地点的运营中断可能发生在一个理想的时间.
许多企业别无选择，只能寻找其他供应商. In doing so, 它们已经获得了发展包容性供应链的一些更广泛的好处, 包括获得新创意的能力, develop more competitive businesses, and tackle inequality.
Minority Supplier Development UK (MSDUK), which brings together global corporations and ethnic-minority businesses to develop more inclusive and diverse supply chains, 在病毒首次出现后的七个月里，企业会员的数量几乎翻了一番.
The pandemic prompted corporate businesses at MSDUK to buy from ethnic minority suppliers offering personal protective equipment and essential goods. “Those entrepreneurs were far better when it came to quality and service – they were working 24/7 to make sure they were providing those services to our corporate partners,” says Mayank Shah, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of MSDUK. “(发展包容性供应链)有一个非常简单的商业理由, even if we ignore the social impact.”
“It is vital to have a clear risk ranking, an understanding of your critical suppliers, and enough process around those suppliers to monitor for potential disruptions and then be able to respond proactively. 我们一直在帮助客户管理他们的供应商基础. We have been asking: how much more engaged are you with your suppliers in order to understand what’s going on? The COVID-19 crisis has woken up a number of industry players and I believe we are starting to see more formalization in how they manage sourcing arrangements. 这里的另一个关键因素不仅是管理第一线安排, but also having an awareness of your suppliers’ suppliers and how that might impact the delivery of your products.”
“COVID-19危机是导致一场完美风暴的最后因素. 这是在经济衰退的风险之上, Brexit, US-China trade-wars, increased regulation, tensions continuing in the Middle East, 以及“经济放缓”的迹象(以及全球贸易将如何受到当前和未来的影响). 不过，对企业来说，这些事件也有积极的一面. 全球化和经济增长将会恢复, but those who will prosper most from the supply chain revolution will do so by emerging stronger from the crisis with an adaptable and resilient mindset. 现在是做出具有持久价值的大胆决定的时候了, 这不仅是因为从COVID-19危机管理中吸取的教训, 但也有其他事件造成了这场完美风暴. Businesses that adopt a wider and more diverse supply chain will find themselves adapting more effectively to regulatory change. 他们应该更清楚地了解整个供应链，以抓住机遇, address challenges, 积极有效地管理第三方风险的各个方面. Businesses should be better equipped to act decisively and quickly to solve supply chain problems and be pioneers of technological advancement and innovative thinking in their industry. 要有一种不断改进工作实践的心态. Furthermore, I believe delivering an effective environmental, social and governance (ESG) agenda as part of the business model will be an increasingly key feature of future success.”